Histology is a method to differentially stain and identify various tissue structures in thin tissue sections. Through structural representation and localization, changes in the tissue can be identified and regeneration of new tissue can be examined. Therefore, histology is one of the most important analytical methods in biology, pathology and tissue regeneration.

The group around Barbara Schädl uses histological methods for projects in different areas of intensive care and tissue regeneration. Thereby, various types of samples are treated such as inner organs (liver and kidney), tissue of the skeletal and locomotor system (cartilage, bone and muscle) or skin. Furthermore, transplants that are developed from various biomaterials as well as cellular constructs are examined. The following technological methods are used:

  • Paraffin histology
  • Frozen sections
  • Resin embedding
  • Histochemical staining
  • Enzyme histochemical staining
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)
  • Transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

The aim is to display various tissue components or to identify specific tissue structures by enzyme or antibody-antigen reaction (matrix components, cell types, cytokines). Electron microscopy in contrast provides a structural display option in the area of high-resolution, which for instance allows for collagen fibrils and their sub-structures as well as their cell components to become visible. It is possible to examine three-dimensional samples (SEM) or histological slides (TEM). With these methods, the development of tissues, their condition and cell activity as well as the degradation of biomaterials can be depicted.

Hard Tissue Histology

Furthermore, hard tissue histology is performed at the Karl Donath Laboratory at the University Clinic of Dentistry, to visualize and analyze the structures of hard tissues.  Unlike in soft tissues, the extracellular matrix of hard tissues as bones and teeth is mineralized and it is therefore impossible to process them with conventional histologic methods.

The group under the lead of Stefan Tangl employs specialized techniques to examine changes in hard tissues and to describe and quantify their regeneration. The following techniques are used:

  • Cutting–Grinding Technique to produce and analyze undecalcified histological thin-ground sections
  • Histomorphometry to measure bone tissue and biomaterials

The aim is to develop new therapeutic strategies to optimize the integration of bone biomaterials. Furthermore, the research focus is put on improving bone supply by using and testing bone substitute materials to regenerate bone.

Selected Publications

Nürnberger S, Rentenberger C, Thiel K, Schädl B, Grunwald I, Ponomarev I, Marlovits St, Mejer Ch & Barnewitz D (2017). Giant crystals inside mitochondria of equine chondrocytes. Histochem Cell Biol. 2017 May;147(5):635-649.
(free PDF)

Schneider C, Lehmann J, van Osch GJVM, Hildner F, Teuschl A, Monforte X, Miosga D, Heimel P, Priglinger E, Redl H, Wolbank S & Nürnberger S (2016). Systematic comparison of protocols for the preparation of human articular cartilage for use as scaffold. Tissue Engineering Part C, 22(12):1095-1107.
(author’s manuscript)

Teuschl A., Heimel P, Nürnberger S, van Griensven M, Redl H & Nau T (2016). A Novel Silk Fiber–Based Scaffold for Regeneration of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament – Histological Results From a Study in Sheep. Am J Sport Med, 44(6):1547-1557.

Schneider KH, Aigner P, Holnthoner W, Monforte X, Nürnberger S, Rünzler D, Redl H & Teuschl AH (2016). Decellularized human placenta chorion matrix as a favourable source of small diameter vascular grafts. Acta Biomaterialia, 29(1):125-134.

Banerjee A, Nürnberger S, Hennerbichler S, Riedl S, Schuh CM, Hacobian A, Teuschl A, Eibl J, Redl H & Wolbank S (2014). In toto differentiation of human amniotic membrane towards the Schwann cell lineage. Cell Tissue Bank, 15(2):227-239.

Lindenmair A, Nürnberger S, Stadler G, Meinl A, Hackl C, Eibl J, Gabriel C, Hennerbichler S, Redl H & Wolbank S (2014). Intact human amniotic membrane differentiated towards the chondrogenic lineage. Cell Tissue Bank, 15(2):213-225.

Nürnberger S, Miller I, Duvigneau JC, Kavanagh ET, Gupta S, Hartl RT, Hori O, Gesslbauer B, Samali A, Kungl A, Redl H & Kozlov AV (2012). Impairment of endoplasmic reticulum in liver as an early consequence of the systemic inflammatory response in rats. American Journal of Physiology – Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, 303(12):G1373-1383.
(free full text)